Planning a physical fitness monitoring system involves making decisions about
data resources and products, such as feedback reports for different target
groups and supporting applications. In the past, data administration was based
on hand-filled, paper-based documents. Today, however, all the conditions are in place for
fast, efficient, and reliable online data management systems for anyone. The implementation
of physical fitness test batteries generates large amounts of personal assessment data, that
can used and interpreted in diverse ways among different stakeholders. The direct users
of such systems are teachers, students, and parents, whereas indirect users include school
principals, school health professionals, school operators, educational-, health- and sport
policymakers, political decision-makers and others involved in the use of public health data.
Therefore, data access is an important issue, and producing a clear Data Management Plan
is a must to for any physical fitness monitoring system. The plan should describe in detail
how personal data will be collected, produced, and secured within the monitoring system;
specifically, how will the data be collected, cleaned, managed, described, and stored, to
what standards will one use the data, how will data be presented to target group users, and
how will data be handled and protected even after users of the monitoring system leave the
Administering the results of the fitness testing, the following aspects should be addressed:
Policy regulations in accordance with the GDPR. Measurement data of students is
sensitive data, thus administering, handling it anonymously requires special attention.
Ensuring the legal terms of the data linked to a specific student (i.e.: parental consent
statement, consent statement from the students ages above 16 or according to national
Data protection regulation).
Development of personal identification codes (in case they are not available centrally),
without which longitudinal testing is not possible.
Designing the access interfaces for teachers, students, parents, and administrators in
accordance with the needs of the given user group.
Univocal roles and responsibilities in the data management process.
Management of students and teachers in school level (i.e.: changes within classes, new
teachers, new students’ arrival).
The system must be open for expansion and modification of the test items, provide
alternative test items for students with special educational needs and it has to be able
to handle on individual level.
Easy-to-understand data entry interface for feasible and fast data entry.
It must provide online (real-time) and offline (follow-up) data entry options for users
Design of clear, easy-to-use online and offline data entry interfaces that minimize
administrational errors (e.g.: locked Excel files, error messages, setting minimum and
Protocols and possibilities for handling false or incorrect data.
Protocols for the administration of missing data.
Development of a reporting system for stakeholders based on the database
Use of retrievable data for scientific purposes.
Case Slovenia: Data management plan in SLOfit
Data flow, data insight and data anonymization
Parents or students always access their personal and/or children’s personal
information with a username and password. They have the right to change their
personal data, add new data or change the data they had put in before, but
they cannot change the physical fitness data that was inputted by the school. All
the data in the SLOfit database is automatically anonymised one year after an
individual finishes their education. All the users are notified before anonymisation;
they are given the option to permanently store and access the data in the
application. Anonymised SLOfit data are used afterwards for statistical and
scientific research, in accordance with the agreement of the Commission on
Ethical Issues in Sport.
Personal data protection
To provide meaningful feedback from physical fitness monitoring, identification
of students is required. Therefore, all personal data treatment should be in
accordance with data protection regulation (e.g. GDPR in Europe). If physical
fitness monitoring is not mandatory by law for students, their parents, or students
by themselves (if they are old enough according to local regulation) should give
written consent for collecting and treating personal data included in monitoring
system. If possible, physical fitness data treatment should be regulated by a
special national legislation that defines the data treatment provider, i.e. the
organisation which analyses fitness data and gives feedback to individuals and
schools. If this is not the case, schools may enter into bilateral contracts with
the fitness data processor which will process the data of their students. Schools
and the data processor must take all necessary data protection measures to
prevent unauthorised use of personal data. Moreover, Data Protection Officers
from the schools and the data processor should double-check all personal data
Schools and data management
Based on previous activities with schools, the Faculty of Sport is the manager of the
SLOfit national system. Schools use the system free of charge, based on the SLOfit
service agreement, and appoint a school administrator who is responsible for the
communication between the SLOfit national team and the school. Every school
administrator is responsible for managing the users in their school (e.g. students,
teachers, parents, doctors). They are the ones who acquire parental consent for
involvement into SLOfit, import the lists of children and parental e-mail addresses,
input the results of testing, verify the submitted school data, and communicate
feedback to the school principal, other teachers, parents, and municipalities. All
school administrators are required to attend an annual free training course at
the Faculty of Sport, which is a prerequisite for schools to start using the My SLOfit
Quality of the data
The my SLOfit application provides school administrators the ability to enter
physical fitness testing data directly into app or via an Excel document. When
entering the data, there are simultaneously cleaning procedures which are
initiated based on so-called smart algorithms. These algorithms compare entered
values according to age and sex, previous fitness data, and other fitness data
entered in current period to ensure the entered data make sense for that variable.
For example, certain data cannot be entered out of a predetermined range (e.g.
height greater than 180 cm at age 7) and alert the user that the data should be
immediately corrected, while for other doubtful data, the school administrator is
notified to check these data again. If the administrator confirms doubtful data
has been entered, a communication tool within the application allows him/her
to describe specific inconsistencies and communicate this to the primary SLOfit
administrator who confirms that the school data entered into the central SLOfit
database is correct. Once this condition is met, all users can immediately generate
their feedback reports, otherwise the data is corrected at the level of the school,
checked by central SLOfit administrators, and so on until accurate data is verified.
Case Hungary: Data administration procedures of NETFIT®
In Hungary, a standardized, mandatory, criterion-referenced, health-related, annual
fitness assessment has been in force since 2015 (NETFIT®)22. Based on the experience of
the last 5 years, an optimal administration path follows the following logic:
In Hungary, every student has a so-called measurement identification number
from the moment they enter school, which is provided by the Educational Authority
and which accompanies the students’ studies until they leave high school.
Identification based on the measurement ID can only be done by the student’s
teacher, who can pair the name and the measurement ID. The measurement
IDs are transferred into the NETFIT® system via a software connection with the
Educational Authority. Measurement IDs are transferred and managed by the
authorized administrator of the schools. Once a year, the measurement IDs need to
be transferred to the NETFIT® system.
The administrator then assigns the measurement IDs to classes and teachers.
Teachers are responsible for the steps taken following the administrative steps
They check and validate the assigned classes (all students are assigned to the
right class) by matching the measurement IDs to the name of the students.
If necessary, they adapt the test system to students with special educational
needs (select individually relevant, alternative tests).
Tests are then assessed in the appropriate testing environment in physical education lessons.
Followingly, the task of the teachers is to administer the results in the NETFIT®
software, which can either be done online, or by uploading a predesigned, locked
The system then sends an e-mail notification to the student and parents about the data entered.